Medium Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo
Cacatua galerita eleanora Indonesia
Also known as Eleanora cockatoo or Medium.
Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are a subspecies of Cacatua galerita Along with the well know Greater sulphur crested and Triton cockatoos. Medium sulphur-cresteds are large white cockatoos with recurved yellow crests and the tips curl upward. The only other color is yellow on the insides of the wings. The crest feathers spread out and up when the crest is erect. They have blue-eye rings and a smaller beak than the triton.
Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are found on the Aru and Kai Islands in the northern Maluku province of Indonesia. They inhabit lowland forests, especially mature canopy forests along rivers. They also frequent cleared lands. They are most active in early morning and late afternoon. Wild cockatoos feed on nuts, seeds, berries and insects.
Length is 17 to 19 inches. Weight is 500 to 700 grams. Males are generally larger than females and have larger heads and beaks.
Medium sulphur-cresteds and other cockatoo species can be very long lived and a few individuals in zoos have lived up to 50-60 years. Precise data on life span of the average Medium sulphur-crested cockatoo is poorly documented, however most Medium sulphur-cresteds do not live as long as possible. Birds often succumb to disease or injury.
Breeding age can be as young as 3 years, however hand-reared birds may not begin breeding before they are 6 to 8 years old. Breeding life span is not precisely known but is possibly up to 30+ years.
Personality - Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are affectionate, playful and highly intelligent birds. They are excellent companion birds for those who want a charming, loving bird that likes to cuddle. Medium sulphur- cresteds tend to be very demanding of attention and if they are deprived of attention can become very noisy and destructive or turn to plucking or self- mutilation behavior. Imprinted cockatoos may become possessive of their owners. This possessive behavior can lead to unpredictable or aggressive behavior towards other people especially as the bird reaches sexual maturity.
While Medium sulphur-cresteds will occasionally speak, they are not known for their ability to mimic. They are however very vocal and many birds loose their home due to loud screaming. This behavior is often learned when young birds hear the morning or afternoon screaming of another cockatoo. Mature birds may scream more intensely and loudly (calling for a mate) and screaming is often intensified during the breeding season.
Activities – Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are playful and inquisitive and they love to chew objects in their surroundings. They should always be provided with toys, blocks of wood or branches that they can chew. In order to ensure safety companion cockatoos should not be allowed unsupervised freedom in the home as they often encounter toxins or dangerous items.
Young cockatoos should be socialized to many people and exposed to a variety of situations such as new cages, toys, visits to the veterinarian, handling by friends, wing and nail clips, etc. to avoid fear of novel situations.
Dietary needs - Cockatoos should be fed a formulated (pelleted or extruded diet) as a basis for good nutrition. Kaytee Exact is an excellent staple diet for cockatoos. The diet should be supplemented with fresh fruits and vegetables daily to add variety and psychological enrichment. Feed approximately 1/3 cup of Kaytee Exact and 1/3 cup of fresh fruits and vegetables daily. If the bird consumes all of it’s food give additional food as desired. Overfeeding leads to pickiness, wastage and throwing food. Treats such as seeds, nuts and table foods maybe given in small amounts especially as rewards for good behavior.
Special requirements - Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are very efficient in utilization of calories. Juvenile cockatoos are notoriously picky eaters and don’t seem to need much food to maintain themselves. Try to ensure that the food that they do eat is nutritious. Vitamin supplements are not needed for birds that are eating a formulated diet.
Grooming - Routine bathing or showering is vital to maintaining good plumage and skin condition. Birds can be misted and allowed to dry in a warm room or in the sun, or gently dried with a blow drier. Care should be taken not to clip the wing feathers excessively as cockatoos often fall and injure themselves. Clip only the primary flight feathers and only enough so the bird will glide to the floor.
Identification - All companion and breeding birds should be individually identified to assist in recovery if lost and assist in maintenance of medical and genealogical records. Many breeders apply closed legs bands when chicks are young. While they present a slight risk of entrapment closed bands are preferable to no identification, especially for breeding birds.
Microchips, which can be implanted into the muscle or under the skin, are a reliable means of identification but require electronic readers to verify identification. Tattoos may be used but often fade or become illegible with time. Footprints may have some application in identification.
Sexing Most of the white cockatoos species can be sexed by eye color when mature. The eyes of a mature female Medium sulphur-crested are red while the eyes of the male are dark brown or black. Juveniles of both sexes will have brown eyes. The sex of breeders should be confirmed by surgical or DNA sexing.
Housing - Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are very active and should be provided the largest cage that space and budget allows. Durable cage construction is very important because Medium sulphur-cresteds are very strong chewers and can easily break welds on poorly constructed cages.
Many are also adept at opening cage latches. Locks or escape proof latches may be necessary on cages. The cage should be as large as possible but must allow at least enough room to fully spread the wings. Ideally the bird will have an outdoor cage as well to allow playtime in the fresh-air and sunlight.
Breeding – Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos breed well in captivity but are not as prolific or bred as commonly as Moluccan and Umbrellas. In
North America Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos breed predominantly in the winter and spring. Clutch size is typically 2 to 3 eggs. The breeding cage should be large enough to allow some limited flight between perches. One inch by one inch by 12 gauge-welded wire is a good choice for cage construction. A suggested size is 4 feet wide by 4 feet tall by 8 feet long suspended 4 feet above the ground or floor.
Nest Box - Double entrance boxes are often used to reduce the chance of the male trapping the female in the box. Large grandfather style wooden boxes can be used. Size should be approximately 18” x 18” x 24”. Metal barrels, plastic pickle barrels and garbage cans can be used, however the act of chewing a wooden nest box may stimulate reproductive behavior.
Incubation period is approximately 24-26 days. Chicks will usually fledge at approximately 12 to 14 weeks of age. Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are relatively easy to hand-rear. Most hand rearing formulas can be used successfully, however if you are using a formula, which is relatively high in fat, care must be taken not to overfeed the chick. Kaytee Exact regular handrearing diet is a good choice.
Male cockatoos frequently become aggressive toward their mates. Fatal attacks may occur in which the male bird severely bites the face, wings, and legs of the female. Cage construction and management must take into consideration techniques to reduce mate aggression. Clipping the wings of the male prior to the breeding season will help the female to escape in case the male becomes aggressive. Aggressive behavior may occur in compatible breeding pairs.
When breeding cockatoos, noise and proximity to neighbors must be considered. If housed outdoors cockatoos often call at night especially during a full moon. In southern states outdoor caging must be protected from opossums to prevent exposure to the parasite Sarcocystis falcatula which can result in a fatal lung infection.
Common diseases and disorders
- Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (Common in wild population but rare now in captive cockatoo populations)
- Proventricular dilation disease
- Self mutilation
- Juvenile chewing of flight feathers and tail
- Poor eating habits - picky eaters
- Bacterial and fungal infections
- Cloacal prolapse
- Mate aggression
- Toxicity, ingestion of metals
Conservation Status - Medium sulphur-crested cockatoos are listed on Appendix II on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Their wild population has declined due to habitat destruction and trade but they are not considered endangered.